Temple, Shirley (1928- ), American motion-picture actress, considered among the most successful
child stars in the history of film. She was born Shirley Jane Temple in Santa Monica, California. Propelled by an ambitious
mother, Temple made her film debut at the age of three, and at age six she was featured in Stand Up and Cheer (1934). Known
for her blond ringlets and her appealing lisp, and recognized for her ability to sing and tap-dance, Temple became a celebrity
in 1934, when she starred in four films: Now and Forever, Little Miss Marker, Baby Take a Bow, and Bright Eyes. At the end
of that year she was given a special Academy Award "in grateful recognition of her outstanding contribution." During the Great
Depression of the 1930s, Temple was celebrated by an adoring public. A sophisticated performer who often seemed more mature
than the adults around her, Temple had no difficulty upstaging her experienced costars, among them such veteran performers
as Lionel Barrymore, Adolph Menjou, Sidney Blackmer, Alice Faye, Robert Young, Cesar Romero, Jimmy Durante, and C. Aubrey
Smith. Among the films Temple made for Fox Film Corporation (her studio for all but her first two pictures) in the 1930s were
The Little Colonel, Curly Top, and The Little Rebel, in 1935; Poor Little Rich Girl, Dimples, and Stowaway, in 1936; Wee Willie
Winkie and Heidi, in 1937; Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm and Little Miss Broadway, in 1938; and The Little Princess and Susannah
of the Mounties, in 1939. At the height of her popularity, from 1935 to 1938, Temple was the biggest box-office attraction
in Hollywood, and the large gross revenues from her films helped to make Fox a major film studio. Temple made a number of
films as a teenager-among them Miss Annie Rooney (1942), I'll Be Seeing You (1944), Since You Went Away (1944), The Bachelor
and the Bobbysoxer (1947), and Fort Apache (1948)-but her appeal had faded, and the films were not successful. In 1949 she
retired from acting.
The name "Shirley Temple" conjures up the image of a golden-hairdo moppet tap- dancing
her way through a sugar-coated career. This, despite the facts that Temple herself -- Shirley Temple Black since her 1950
marriage -- endured several professional setbacks, pursued an impressive second career in politics, and, as a child, was a
driven actress who despite her age, conducted herself like a studio professional.
Unlike the eerily adult kids who
populate today's films, Temple was unapologetic about being a child. Soon after came Margaret O'Brien and Natalie Wood, both
knowing and prescient. The floodgates were open for brilliant but non-childlike performances by Tatum O'Neal, Jodie Foster
and Home Alone's sensation Macaulay Culkin. Encouraged to be wise beyond their years, mouthing adult lines and thrust into
grown-up situations, many of today's junior stars develop egos that are allowed to grow unchecked. However, during her
years at Fox and 20th Century Fox, Temple was sheltered by both her studio and parents from the harsh realities of the Depression.
Indeed, she seems to have been one of the last child actresses allowed to be a child. Ironically, Temple began her career
playing adult roles in a series of 1932 "Baby Burlesks," short subjects that today would be considered highly inappropriate.
She played characters named "Morelegs Sweet trick" (a pun on Marlene Dietrich) and "Mme. Cradlebait." But when Fox signed
her in 1934, the studio abandoned the infant sexpot image and let her be what she really was an energetic, resilient, good-natured
little girl. Fox needed a star. In the first years of the Depression, the studio was in serious financial
such lighthearted charmers as The Little Colonel (1935; April 23) and Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm (1938; April 23), Temple
became the No. 1 box-office attraction in Hollywood between 1934 and '38, single-handedly pulling her studio out of the red.
A typical early hit was Bright Eyes (1934; April 23), costarring one of her favorite leading men, James Dunn, and introducing
her signature hit, "On the Good Ship Lollipop" (an airplane -- not a boat, as is usually assumed).
Like many young
stars, Temple learned early to rely on herself. In her first films, she was banished to a black box if she behaved -- at age
4! -- childishly. Rather than becoming petulant and rebellious, Temple later wrote that this "lesson of life was profound
and unforgettable. Time is money. Wasted time means wasted money means trouble. Time spent working is more fun than standing
in an icy black box and getting an earache." Time started to catch up to Temple, who began to age before the public's eyes.
She was also maturing in her approach to her career. In her own favorite film, the Kipling adaptation of Wee Willie Winkie
(1937), a 9-year-old Temple worked hard to impress director John Ford. The tough-minded. veteran filmmaker won her eternal
love by treating her as a grownup, brooking no girlish nonsense and brushing off her attempts at charm. This was just the
thing for the coddled child star; she delighted in doing her own stunts, drilling with the troops and working harder than
everyone else. When Ford finally muttered, "Nice kid, that," his gruff comment made her day. Her hardworking professionalism
extended to other shoots. When a little boy wearing her dress served as a body double for the goat-butting scene in Heidi
(1937; April 23), the star protested. Temple preferred to do her own stunts, arguing that the hard work made her feel like
"one of the gang."
By the end of the decade, Temple was no longer the baby of the lot. After her Fox contract ended
in 1940, Temple went on to make a handful of modest films, including Since You Went Away in 1943 and The Bachelor and the
Bobby-Soxer in 1947. However, her priority
was to act (at last!) her age. Her teen years were happy ones, she recalled.
Brushing out her famous curls, Temple enrolled in Westlake School for Girls and delighted in the joys of sodas, sock hops
and even schoolwork. "Westlake was my spring latch to another world,"
she said. "I could hardly wait, catch-up homework
The prospect of becoming a has-been before puberty has driven many a child star to distraction and destruction.
But thanks to Temple's strengths, one innate (self-discipline) and the other learned (studio-style professionalism), this
star expected no less from herself on her way out than she did on her way up. In the late '40s, Temple departed gracefully
Two decades later, she re-emerged into the spotlight by announcing her candidacy for Congress. She
lost the election, but Temple displayed her trademark tenacity and went on to enjoy a long and successful career with the
United Nations and the State Department. Currently retired, she reports that she is at peace with her life and proud of her
accomplishments in two of the nation's most influential arenas.
"If I had to do it all over again," Shirley Temple Black
recently declared, "I wouldn't change anything."
Although you might first think of Shirley Temple Black as the
child star who danced and sang her
way into America's hearts in the 1930's, her achievements and accomplishments in her
adult life have
reached far more people globally.
As a child Shirley starred in more than forty major motion pictures
and fifty major television
productions. She received an Oscar Award in 1935. Although many child actors and actresses
difficulty moving from the entertainment industry into business or other careers, Shirley Temple Black
is a remarkable
exception. She has been able to blend her quick wit and style with warmth and grace
to become one of our nations most
In 1969 Mrs. Black became a U.S. Delegate to the United Nations. In the years that followed she
served as a U.S. Delegate to many International Conferences and Summits on cooperative treaties
and human environment.
In 1976 she became the first female Chief of Protocol of the United States.
From this position she moved on to the U.S.
Ambassador to the Republic of Ghana from
1974-1976, then U.S. Chief Protocol, then an officer for the U.S. Foreign Affairs
later in 1989 to U.S. Ambassador to Czech and Slovak Federal Republic. As the first female U.S.
Protocol of the United States, she was in charge of implementation of all State Department
visits, ceremonies, gifts for
foreign heads of state, and liaison to all foreign embassies and consulates
located in the U.S.A. Protocol is the diplomatic
procedure governed by law or international custom
and practice. The Department of State first established a Division of
Protocol in 1928. All
incumbents since 1961 have held the rank of Ambassador.
Diplomatic skills and the ability
to create a climate among people where they can discuss issues of
mutual concern are extremely important. Though her diplomatic
skills kept her busy in the political
arena, Mrs. Black has also lent her expertise in the business sector sitting on
the Corporate Board of
Directors for such major companies as Del Monte, Bancal Tri-State, Fireman's Fund Insurance, and
Walt Disney Productions.
Her professional activities currently include board and council memberships on the Institute
International Studies at Stanford University, the Council on Foreign Relations, the Council of
and the World Affairs Council. She has also served on the boards of the
United States Commission for UNESCO, the National
Committee on U.S. - China Relations, the
United Nations Association, the American-China Society, and the U.S. Citizen's
Force. She was a founding member in 1983 and currently serves on the Board of Directors of the
Academy of Diplomacy and was Co-founder of the International Federation of Multiple
Black received honorary doctorates from University of Santa Clara and Lehigh University, a
Fellowship from College of
Notre Dame, and a Chubb Fellowship from Yale University.
Some of the skills that have been critical to her success
include negotiating skills, studying
international events and problem areas, and most importantly, teamwork. A turning
point in her
political career was when she served as a delegate to the United Nations, focusing her work on
relations. Her personal contacts with both Eleanor Roosevelt and Amelia Earhart gave
her drive and perseverance and Mrs.
Black credits them both with being her key role models.
Although her varied career has kept her active, she still
found time to raise a wonderful family, her
greatest accomplishment and joy. She has three children and one granddaughter
and currently lives in
Woodside, California with her husband Charles Black. She truly enjoys being a wife, mother, and
grandmother. Her hobbies include golf, gardening, fishing and cooking.